Yearly Archive2015

Byadmin

آموزش CCNA قسمت اول

IP Address :

برای اینکه ما بتونیم آدرس IP رو راحتتر به خاطر بسپاریم، آدرس IP  رو در مبنا ده استفاده میکنند ولی کامپیوترها و دیگر تجهیزات شبکه مانند روتر ها از آدرس IP به صورت باینری برای بر قراری ارتباط استفاده می کنند.

آدرس IP  ورژن 4 که مورد صحبت ماست از چهار قسمت تشکیل میشه که به هر کدوم از این قسمتها یک Octet یا یک هشت تایی میگیم. دلیلشم اینه که عدد هایی که در این Octet ها مینویسیم  در مبنای 10 است که نماینده 8 تا صفر یا یک که همون باینریه هستند.

Octet.Octet.Octet.Octet
به هر کدوم از  Octet از هشت  خونه یا هشت بیت تشکیل میشن، پس آدرس IP ورژن 4 از چهارOctet هشت بیتی بوجود میاد و در مجموع 32 بیت یا چهار بایت می باشد.

ارزش بیتها در هر Octet از سمت راست به چپ بیشتر میشه، به عبارت دیگه اولین خونه از سمت راست در هر Octet بیانگر 2 به توان صفر(1) و اولین خونه از سمت راست در هر Octet بیانگر 2 به توان هفت (128) است. پس با کمی دقت می فهمیم که هر Octet بین صفر تا 256 متغیره.(به غیر از اولین Octet از سمت چپ که بین 1 تا 239 است. )

اگر هر هشت خونه یک  ست شوند بزرگترین عدد آن Octet را داریم یعنی:

1+2+4+8+16+32+64+128=256

اگر هر هشت خونه صفر  ست شوند کوچکترین عدد آن Octet را داریم یعنی:

0+0+0+0+0+0+0+0=0

 

0 ≤ Octet ≤ 256

 

تقسیم بندی کلاس های IP :

برای تشخیص اینکه آدرس IP  ما در کدوم کلاس  IP قرار دارد به عدد اولین Octet در سمت چپ نگاه می کنیم:

Octet.Octet.Octet.Octet

آدرسهای IP به پنج کلاس تقسیم میشن که انواع و تفاوتاشونو در ادامه میگم:
کلاس A :

با ارزش ترین بیت Octet اول برای IP هایی که در این کلاس هستند صفر است، یعنی Octet اول برای این IP ها بین 1 تا 127 است:

0
1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128

 

1+0+0+0+0+0+0+0=1

1+2+4+8+16+32+64=127

 

 

 

1 ≤ A Class  ≤ 127

 

 

کلاس B :

با ارزش ترین بیت Octet اول برای IP هایی که در این کلاس هستند یک و بیت بعدی صفر  است، یعنی Octet اول برای این IP ها بین 128 تا 191 است:

0 1
1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128

 

0+0+0+0+0+0+0+128=128

1+2+4+8+16+32+128=191

 

 

128 ≤ B Class  ≤ 191

 

کلاس C :

با ارزش ترین دو بیت Octet اول برای IP هایی که در این کلاس هستند یک و بیت بعدی صفر است، یعنی Octet اول برای این IP ها بین 192 تا 223 است:

0 1 1
1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128

 

0+0+0+0+0+0+64+128=192

1+2+4+8+16+64+128=223

 

 

192 ≤ C Class  ≤ 223

 

کلاس D :

با ارزش ترین  سه بیت Octet اول برای IP هایی که در این کلاس هستند یک و بیت بعدی صفر است، یعنی Octet اول برای این IP ها بین 224 تا 239 است:

 

0 1 1 1
1 2 4 8 16 32 64

 

0+0+0+0+0+32+64+128=224

1+2+4+8+32+64+128=239

 

224≤ D Class  ≤ 239

 

کلاس E :

برای MultiCasting  استفاده میشود.

 

  ما به عنوان طراح شبکه فقط از سه کلاس اول یعنی A,B,C استفاده میکنیم.

Byadmin

دستگاه HP StoreEver MSL4048 Ultrium 6250 Tape Library

دستگاه HP StoreEver MSL4048 Ultrium 6250 Tape Library

HP StoreEver MSL4048 1 LTO-6 Ultrium 6250 Fibre Channel Tape Library/Tvlite(L4Z53A)

The HPE StoreEver MSL Tape Libraries meet demanding storage requirement of businesses needing unattended tape backup, disaster recovery, or low cost long-term archive capability. The MSL Libraries offer a broad choice of storage capacities and technology including LTO-7, LTO-6, LTO-5 or LTO-4 Ultrium tape drives.

Web-based remote management makes the MSL Libraries easily managed from across the room or across the globe. Quickly manage the tape media both in and out of the library with the standard bar code reader, configurable mail slots, and multiple 12-slot removable magazines.

Protect important business data from unauthorized access with several data encryption options. MSL library investment protection and uncertain data growth are easily managed within the MSL library portfolio.

Quickly increase capacity and/or performance with tool-free drive upgrades in the MSL2024 or 4048, or move tape drive kits to the MSL6480 for library scalability and additional enterprise class features.

Features

Easy to Manage and Use

MSL Tape Libraries allow you to manage, configure and use the library from across the room or across the globe with the HPE unique web-based remote management and diagnostics. Manage multiple HPE StoreEver libraries from a single pane with Command View Tape Library (CV-TL).
HPE StoreEver MSL Tape Libraries easily manage your media both in or out of the tape library with a standard bar code reader and multiple 12-slot removable magazines.
Proactively monitor utilization, operational performance, and overall life and health of the library, drives and media with TapeAssure. TapeAssure Advanced will additionally provide an intuitive, easy to use dashboard, and advance analytics for predictive analysis.
LTFS provides a self-describing file system on a HPE LTO-7 or LTO-6 cartridge, which enables the combined archiving benefits of application independence, transportability and protection from obsolescence.
HPE StoreEver MSL Tape Libraries easily manage your media both in or out of the tape library with a standard bar code reader and multiple 12-slot removable magazines.

Protection and Flexibility

HPE StoreEver MSL Tape Libraries offer various interface options for maximum flexibility when installing the tape library into a SAS or fibre channel SAN environment.
HPE StoreEver MSL Tape Library family offers a wide range of capacity points from 360 TB to 8400 TB of compressed storage capacity in a variety of rack ready form factors.
Protect critical business data with MSL encryption options that span from small business to the datacenter. Encryption is available on LTO-7, LTO-6, LTO-5 or LTO-4 tape drives and provides the highest level of security to protect confidential information and address compliance regulations.
Increase capacity and/or performance with tool-free drive upgrade kits. For even greater scalability, leverage MSL tape drives into the new MSL6480 for best in class investment protection.

Proven Reliability

MSL Tape Libraries work with industry-leading servers, operating systems and backup software including HPE Data Protector software. For more information, see HPE Enterprise Backup Solutions.
Long term data archiving with a specified 30 year media shelf life in normal ambient conditions.

 

Specifications

Drive type
  • (1) LTO-6 Ultrium 6250
  • Included
Capacity
  • 300TB Compressed 2.5:1
  • 120TB Native
Host interface
  • 8 Gb/sec Fibre Channel
Transfer rate
  • 1.44 TB/hr
  • Compressed 2.5:1
Number of cartridge slots
  • 48
Encryption capability
  • AES 256-bit
Form factor
  • 4U

Dimensions and weight

Minimum dimensions (W x D x H)
  • 48 x 80.6 x 17.5 cm
Weight
  • 22.6 kg

What’s included

Differentiator
  • (1) LTO-6 Ultrium 6250 6 Gb FC tape drive, 24 slot tape library including remote management, removable magazines and bar code reader, rack-ready, encryption capable, RoHS2 Compliant
Warranty – year(s) (parts/labor/onsite)
  • 1/0/0
What’s in the box
  • MSL4048 Tape Library with (1) LTO-6 Ultrium 6250 FC drive, (1) 2.5M PDU Power Cord, C13/C14, 10A, (1) RJ-45 Ethernet cable, Rack mount hardware, Flyer for Yosemite Server Backup software, (24) LTO-6 Media
Byadmin

دستگاه HP StoreEver MSL Tape Libraries

The HPE StoreEver MSL Tape Libraries meet demanding storage requirement of businesses needing unattended tape backup, disaster recovery, or low cost long-term archive capability. The MSL Libraries offer a broad choice of storage capacities and technology including LTO-7, LTO-6, LTO-5 or LTO-4 Ultrium tape drives.

Web-based remote management makes the MSL Libraries easily managed from across the room or across the globe. Quickly manage the tape media both in and out of the library with the standard bar code reader, configurable mail slots, and multiple 12-slot removable magazines.

Protect important business data from unauthorized access with several data encryption options. MSL library investment protection and uncertain data growth are easily managed within the MSL library portfolio.

Quickly increase capacity and/or performance with tool-free drive upgrades in the MSL2024 or 4048, or move tape drive kits to the MSL6480 for library scalability and additional enterprise class features.

What’s new

  • HPE StoreEver MSL Tape Libraries support for new LTO-7 Ultrium 15000 tape drives allowing for higher capacity per library footprint and faster throughput.
  • HPE StoreEver MSL LTO-7 Ultrium 15000 tape drives offer compressed capacity of up to 15 TB per cartridge and 300 MB/s native transfer rate per drive.

Features

Easy to Manage and Use

MSL Tape Libraries allow you to manage, configure and use the library from across the room or across the globe with the HPE unique web-based remote management and diagnostics. Manage multiple HPE StoreEver libraries from a single pane with Command View Tape Library (CV-TL).

HPE StoreEver MSL Tape Libraries easily manage your media both in or out of the tape library with a standard bar code reader and multiple 12-slot removable magazines.

Proactively monitor utilization, operational performance, and overall life and health of the library, drives and media with TapeAssure. TapeAssure Advanced will additionally provide an intuitive, easy to use dashboard, and advance analytics for predictive analysis.

LTFS provides a self-describing file system on a HPE LTO-7 or LTO-6 cartridge, which enables the combined archiving benefits of application independence, transportability and protection from obsolescence.

HPE StoreEver MSL Tape Libraries easily manage your media both in or out of the tape library with a standard bar code reader and multiple 12-slot removable magazines.

Protection and Flexibility

HPE StoreEver MSL Tape Libraries offer various interface options for maximum flexibility when installing the tape library into a SAS or fibre channel SAN environment.

HPE StoreEver MSL Tape Library family offers a wide range of capacity points from 360 TB to 8400 TB of compressed storage capacity in a variety of rack ready form factors.

Protect critical business data with MSL encryption options that span from small business to the datacenter. Encryption is available on LTO-7, LTO-6, LTO-5 or LTO-4 tape drives and provides the highest level of security to protect confidential information and address compliance regulations.

Increase capacity and/or performance with tool-free drive upgrade kits. For even greater scalability, leverage MSL tape drives into the new MSL6480 for best in class investment protection.

Proven Reliability

MSL Tape Libraries work with industry-leading servers, operating systems and backup software including HPE Data Protector software. For more information, see HPE Enterprise Backup Solutions.

Long term data archiving with a specified 30 year media shelf life in normal ambient conditions.

 

 

Specifications

Drive type
  • LTO-6 Ultrium 6250
  • LTO-5 Ultrium 3000
  • LTO-5 Ultrium 3280
  • LTO-4 Ultrium 1760
  • LTO-4 Ultrium 1840
  • LTO-7 Ultrium 15000
  • (6) Maximum supported, depending on model
Capacity
  • 8400TB Compressed 2.5:1
  • 4200TB Native
  • 24 slots to 560 slots, depending on model
  • Maximum, depending on model and drive type
Host interface
  • 8 Gb Fibre Channel or
  • 4 Gb Fibre Channel or
  • 6 Gb/sec SAS or
  • 3 Gb/sec SAS
Transfer rate
  • 300 MB/sec
  • Native maximum, LTO-7
Number of cartridge slots
  • 24, 48, 80-560
  • Depending on model
Encryption capability
  • AES 256-bit
  • NOTE: For Ultrium 6250, 3280, 3000, 1840 or 1760 drives
Form factor
  • 2U-4U, Depending on model
Byadmin

سرور HP Proliant DL560 G8

سرور HP Proliant DL560 G8

 

 

 

The HP ProLiant DL560 Gen8 server, latest server in the ProLiant Scale-up x86 portfolio, that redefines density-optimized 4-socket rack server technology without compromising on performance, scalability, and expandability. Built on the latest Gen8 innovative and intuitive hardware and software features and supporting the new high-density and cost effective Intel® Xeon® E5-4600v2 processors, the DL560 Gen8 is ideal for virtualization, server consolidation, database, business processing, and general 4P data-intensive applications where optimization of data center space and price/performance is paramount.

What’s new

  • Eliminate infrastructure complexity with HP OneView 1.10. Now available on all HP ProLiant DL Gen8 Servers!
  • As low as 3 months ROI with the HP ProLiant DL560 Gen8 server August 2012. Based on internal HP testing and calculations
  • Leading 4P VMmark 2.1.1 performance record score of 18.75@18 tiles Sept 2012.http://h20195.www2.hp.com/v2/GetPDF.aspx/4AA4-3968ENW
  • Gain flexibility and I/O throughput with up to six (6) PCIe 3.0 expansion slots
  • Increased performance and memory capacity of up to 1.5TB with HP SmartMemory
  • New FlexibleLOM technology provides a choice in networking with 1Gb or 10Gb NICs, CNA, SFP+, FCoE or InfiniBand options

Features

Ideal 4S/2U Dense Form Factor without Compromising on Performance, Scalability, and Expandability

Providing 4S computing in a dense 2U form factor, the ProLiant DL560 supports up to four cost-effective Intel® Xeon® E5-4600v2 processors each up to 12 cores and 130 watts without system configuration restrictions.
HP Smart Storage technology is designed to remove storage bottlenecks and turbo-charge data-intensive application performance to accelerate workloads. Support for the HP Smart Array P420i RAID controller with optional 1GB or 2GB Flash Backed Write Cache.
Up to six PCIe 3.0 expansion slots (up to 3 x16), this technology supports the highest performing option cards now and into the future and provides improved latency of up to 400% the bandwidth per I/O expansion slot compared to Gen7 servers.
HP FlexibleLOM provides you a choice of networking bandwidth and fabric so you can adapt to changing business needs.
HP SmartMemory prevents data loss and downtime with enhanced error handling while improving workload performance and power efficiency. Support for 48 DDR3-DIMM sockets for up to 1.5TB max capacity.

Redefining the Customer Experience with HP ProActive Insight architecture

Redefining the Customer Experience with HP ProActive Insight architecture User-inspired design features that prevent data loss, reduce downtime, and improve serviceability include HP SmartDrives, “Snap and Go” rail kit options, and tool-less access to components.
Integrated Lifecycle Automation provides intuitive system management with simplified provisioning, proactive health monitoring and alerting, and automated firmware and system software maintenance.
Dynamic Workload Acceleration converges storage, compute, and I/O to turbo-charge performance and resiliency while eliminating bottlenecks.
Automated Energy Optimization reclaims space, power, and cooling resources needed for workloads and extends your data center capacity.
HP proactive support services enable industry leading performance, uptime and productivity integrated into a personalized, simplified support experience.

Unlock your Infrastructure’s Potential with HP’s Easy-to-Use Integrated Management and Support

HP iLO Management Engine is a complete set of embedded features, standard on all ProLiant Gen8 servers. Includes HP iLO, HP Agentless Management, HP Active Health System, HP Intelligent Provisioning, and HP Embedded Remote Support.
HP Insight Control provides advanced management capabilities across the lifecycle of your HP ProLiant server infrastructure. HP iLO Advanced, a key component, provides enhanced remote server functions that reduce IT travel costs, while increasing Time-To-Resolution.
HP Insight Online with HP Insight Remote Support provides 24X7 remote monitoring and anywhere, anytime personalized access to your IT and support status.
HP SmartUpdate reduces deployment time and update complexity by systematically updating server infrastructure in the data center. Includes HP Smart Update Manager (HP SUM), and Service Pack for ProLiant (SPP), and other products.

System features

Processor family
Intel® Xeon® E5-4600 v2 product family
Number of processors
  • 4 or 2
Processor core available
12 or 10 or 8 or 6 or 4
Form factor (fully configured)
2U
Power supply type
(2) Common Slot
Expansion slots
  • (6) Maximum – For detail descriptions reference the QuickSpec

Memory

Memory, maximum
  • 1.5TB
Memory slots
  • 48 DIMM slots
  • Maximum
Memory type
  • DDR3 RDIMM and LRDIMM

Storage

Drive description
  • (5) SFF SAS/SATA/SSD
  • Hot plug, depending on model

Controller Cards

Network controller
  • (1) 1Gb 331FLR Ethernet Adapter 4 Ports per controller or
  • 10Gb 530FLR-SFP+ Ethernet Adapter 2 Ports per controller
  • Depending on model
Storage controller
  • Smart Array P420i
  • Applicable to all models

Dimensions and weight

Dimensions (W x D x H)
44.55 x 74.93 x 8.73 cm (17.54 x 29.5 x 3.44 in)
Weight
27.66 kg (61 lb)

Server management

Infrastructure management
iLO Management Engine, Insight Control

What’s included

Byadmin

سرور HP Proliant ML370 G6

At A Glance
The next generation of the HP ProLiant ML370 (expandable tower chassis) and the new HP ProLiant DL370 (4U rack optimized
chassis) deliver Industry-leading management tools, leading performance, expandability, flexibility and the latest energy efficient
technologies. These servers are well-suited for deployment in growing businesses, remote office sites, or datacenters and have been
designed to bring you (our customer) the utmost confidence to run your business.
Features included in both the HP ProLiant ML370 G6 and the HP ProLiant DL370 G6:
Processors:

Up to two (2) Intel® Xeon® 5500 series processors series with Intel Turbo Boost technology which now allows
customized adaptability for optimizing both power consumption and performance based on your respective
requirements
Intel® 5520 chipset
Memory:
18 DIMM slots
Up to 144GB, using PC3-8500R DDR3 Registered (RDIMM) memory, operating at 800MHz when fully populated at 3
DIMMs per Channel in 18 slots
Up to 24GB, using PC3-10600E DDR3 Unbuffered (UDIMM) memory, operating at 1066MHz when fully populated at
2 DIMMs per Channel in 12 slots
Two DIMMs Per Channel at 1333MHz supported with ROM update via ROM Based Setup Utility (RBSU) for 1333MHz
RDIMMs. UDIMM support is only on 12-slot servers.
Storage Controller:
Entry Models: HP Smart Array P410i/256 MB Controller (RAID 0/1/1+0/5/5+0)
NOTE: Entry Models available for ML370 G6 models only.
Base Models: HP Smart Array P410i/256 MB Controller (RAID 0/1/1+0/5/5+0)
Performance Models: HP Smart Array P410i/512 MB BBWC Controller (RAID 0/1/1+0/5/5+0)
Available upgrades: 256MB, 512MB with BBWC, Battery kit upgrade (for BBWC), and Smart Array Advanced Pack
(SAAP)
Internal Drive Support:
Up to 24 small form factor (SFF) or 14 large form factor (LFF) hot-plug drive bays to support Serial-attached SCSI (SAS)
and Serial ATA (SATA) drives
Standard half-height DVD-ROM (all models)
Two open half-height media bays available for tape drives, optical media, optional SAS HDD cage
Network Controller:
HP NC375i Integrated Quad Port Multifunction Gigabit Server Adapter
Expansion Slots:
Nine (9) available PCI-Express Gen2 expansion slots to provide you with the latest I/O performance (see “Standard
Features -Expansion Slots” section below for more details); PCI-X (optional)
Graphic Cards:
Supports up to 3 x 300W Graphic Cards via Graphic Card Power Adapter kit
NOTE: 2 PCIe Gen2 x16 (mechanical/electrical); 1 PCIe Gen2 x16 (mechanical) x8 (electrical)
Ports:
USB 2.0 support
5 total ports: (2) ports up front; (2) ports in back; (1) port internal
1 internal Secure Digital (SD) slot
Redundancy:
Multiple layers of fault tolerance through critical component redundancy (power supply and fan redundancy), mirrored
memory, embedded RAID capability, and full-featured remote Lights-Out management
Power Sources:
Dual Common Slot Bay for Right Sized, Hot plug and Redundant Power options
HP 1200W CS HE Silver Power Supply (optional)
HP 750W CS HE Gold Power Supply (standard on some models)
HP 460W CS HE Gold Power Supply (standard on some models)
Infrastructure Management:
HP ProLiant Onboard Administrator (powered by the HP Integrated Lights-Out 2 management processor) for simplified
server setup, health monitoring and recovery, power and thermal control, and lights-out remote administration.
HP Insight Control (ICE) suites, as product options, deliver essential infrastructure management that can help save time
and money by making it easy to deploy, monitor, control and optimize your IT infrastructure through a single, simple
management console. ICE suites support both Windows and Linux-based servers and management consoles
HP Insight Dynamics – VSE suite for ProLiant servers, a product option, is an integrated command center that enables
you to continuously analyze and optimize your adaptive infrastructure. This advanced infrastructure management

software lets you reduce the cost of common data center tasks by as much as 40 percent while keeping pace with your
changing business.
Form Factor:
4U Tower Chassis and 4U Rack Optimized Chassis
Redesigned 4U Tower Chassis and the new 4U Rack Optimized Chassis to better meet our customer’s density
requirements
Operating Systems and Virtualization Software Support for ProLiant Servers:
Supports Windows, RHEL, SLES, OEL, Solaris, VMware, and Citrix Essentials for XenServer
Deployment/Serviceability:
System Insight Display on the front bezel for quick and easy server diagnostics
Quick Deploy Rail System includes sliding universal rails, an ambidextrous cable management arm and quick release
levers for fast and easy serviceability
Tool-less access to all system components for easy in rack serviceability
Customer Self Repair (CSR): HP products are designed with many CSR parts to minimize repair time and allow for
greater flexibility in performing defective parts replacement
Warranty:
This product is covered by a global limited warranty and supported by HP Services and a worldwide network of HP
Authorized Channel Partners resellers. Hardware diagnostic support and repair is available for three years from date of
purchase. Support for software and initial setup is available for 90 days from date of purchase. Enhancements to
warranty services are available through HP Care Pack services or customized service agreements. SATA hard drives
have a one-year warranty. SAS Enterprise drives have a three-year warranty.
NOTE: Server Warranty includes 3-Year Parts, 3-Year Labor, 3-Year Onsite support with next business day response.
Warranty repairs may be accomplished through the use of Customer Self Repair (CSR) parts. These parts fall into two
categories: 1) Mandatory CSR parts are designed for easy replacement. A travel and labor charge will result when
customers decline to replace a Mandatory CSR part; 2) Optional CSR parts are also designed for easy replacement but
may involve added complexity. Customers may choose to have HP replace Optional CSR parts at no charge. Additional
information regarding worldwide limited warranty and technical support is available at:
http://h18004.www1.hp.com/products/servers/platforms/warranty/index.html

 

Byadmin

مفهوم Tapi

TAPI يا Telephony API يک کتابخانه استاندارد برای کار با مودم و نوشتن برنامه های تلفنی می باشد . برای نمونه می توان از برنامه های Phone Dialer ( شماره گير تلفن ) ، برنامه شبکه سازی تلفنی ( Dialup Networking ) ، برنامه تشخيص پالس مودم برای ضبط اطلاعات وارد شده از طرف کاربران و کاربردهای ديگر در اين زمينه نام برد . اين کتابخانه به شما کمک کمک می کند تا بدون درگير شدن با برنامه نويسی سخت افزار مودم و درايور آن بطور مستقيم بتوانيد برنامه های کاربردیي در اين زمينه بنويسيد .
مروری بر Microsoft Telephony :

Telephony امکان مجتمع سازی کامپيوترها با دستگاههای ارتباطی و شبکه ها را فراهم نموده است . معمولاً دستگاه ارتباطی يک مودم و خط ارتباطی نيز شبکه PSTN ( شبکه عمومی تلفن سوئيچينگ ) می باشد . برخی از کاربردهای Telephony عبارتند از :

۱ – کنفرانسهای مالتی مديا بصورت Multicast
۲ – VoIP
۳ – مرکز پاسخ گويي اتوماتيک
۴ – تماس تلفنی از طريق کامپيوتر روی شبکه PSTN

دياگرام زير معماری Microsoft Telephony را نشان می دهد :
برنامه های TAPI :

برای نوشتن برنامه های کاربردی با استفاده از TAPI بايستی ابتدا در مورد سطح سرويسی که می خواهيم ارائه دهيم تصميم گيری کنيم . برای مثال برای نوشتن يک برنامه شماره گير تلفن نياز به استفاده کامل از TAPI نيست و می توان از قابليتهای خود ويندوز در اين زمينه استفاده کرد ( Assisted Telephony ) . در بخشهای بعدی در مورد سطوح مختلف سرويس در TAPI بيشتر صحبت خواهم کرد .
دومين مطلبی که بايد مورد توجه قرار داد اينست که می خواهيم از TAPI 2.x استفاده کنيم يا از TAPI 3.x . تفاوت ايندو آنست که TAPI ورژن ۲ يک API برمبنای C است در حاليکه ورژن ۳ آن بر مبنای تکنولوژی COM می باشد . در بخشهای بعدی مطالب بيشتری در مورد تفاوتهای اين دو نسخه بيان خواهم کرد .
بخشهای اصلی يک برنامه کامل TAPI عبارتند از :

۱ – TAPI Initialization : شامل load کردن TAPI dll ، اتصال به TAPI Server ، مذاکره در مورد ورژن TAPI و برپاسازی سيستم اطلاع رسانی event می باشد .

۲ – Session Control : مقداردهی اوليه ، دريافت و کنترل تماسها

۳ – Device Control : دريافت و تنظيم اطلاعات دستگاه

۴ – Media Control : تشخيص و يا توليد تونها و ارقام ، کنترل stream

۵ – TAPI Shutdown : آزاد سازی منابع
مقداردهی اوليه TAPI :

عملکرد درست اجزای TAPI نياز به برپاسازی محيط ارتباطی روی کامپيوتر مورد نظر دارد . مراحل اين امر عبارتند از :

۱ – نصب TAPI : زمانيکه سخت افزار و يا نرم افزار برای اولين بار به کامپيوتر اضافه می شود انجام می گيرد . جزئيات کار به سيستم عامل و نرم افزار بستگی دارد .

۲ – مقداردهی ابتدائی : ساخت اشيا و مسيرهای ارتباطی

۳ – مذاکره در مورد ورژن TAPI : برای اطمينان از اينکه اجزای TAPI قادر به تبادل داده ها باشند .

۴ – استخراج اطلاعات منابع : بدست آوردن اطلاعاتی در مورد دستگاهی که می توان از آن در برنامه TAPI مورد نظرمان استفاده نمود .

۵ – Event notification : برپاسازی سيستم اطلاع رسانی event
مقداردهی اوليه TAPI در ويژوال بيسيک :

از منوی Project گزينه References را انتخاب کرده و از ليست مربوطه مورد Microsoft TAPI 3.0 Type Library را انتخاب کنيد .
حال وارد بخش کد نويسی فرمتان شويد و متغير objTAPI را بصورت زير تعريف کنيد :

Dim objTapi As TAPI
سپس در بخش مربوط به Form Load شی objTAPI را بصورت زير ايجاد می کنيم :

Set objTapi = New TAPI
همانطور که در بخشهای قبلی گفته شد ، قبل از فراخوانی هر تابع TAPI ابتدا بايستی آنرا مقداردهی اوليه کنيم . برای مقداردهی اوليه کردن شی TAPI عبارت زير را بنويسيد :

Call objTapi.Initialize
انتخاب يک آدرس :
کد زير نشان می دهد که چگونه می توان با استفاده از شی TAPI در ويژوال بيسيک منابع تلفنی در دسترس را برای يک آدرس که بتواند يک مجموعه مشخص از نيازها را مديريت کند ، بررسی کرد .
توجه داشته باشيد که قبل از انجام اين کار بايستی عمل مقداردهی اوليه TAPI را که در بخش قبل ررسی شد ، انجام دهيد .

نکته : در کد زير عمل error checking انجام نگرفته است و برای استفاده از کد زير در برنامه های واقعی بايستی بخش بررسی خطا را به آن اضافه کنيد .
۱ – تعريف يک شی آدرس و يک شی مجموعه آدرس :

Dim gobjAddress As ITAddress
Dim objCollAddresses As ITCollection

۲ – تنظيم شی objCollAddress بعنوان يک مجموعه آدرس از شی objTapi :

Set objCollAddresses = objTapi.Addresses
۳ – پيدا کردن آدرسی که بتواند از واسط مورد نظر ما پشتيبانی کند :

bFound = False
For indexAddr = 1 To objCollAddresses.Count
Set objCrtAddress = objCollAddresses.Item(indexAddr)x
Set objMediaSupport = objCrtAddress
Set objAddressCapabilities = objCrtAddress

If objMediaSupport.QueryMediaType( nSelectedType ) x
bFound = True
End If

Set objAddressCapabilities = Nothing
Set objMediaSupport = Nothing
Set objCrtAddress = Nothing

If bFound = True Then Exit For
Next indexAddr

در صورتيکه آدرس مورد نظزر پيدا شود برنامه از حلقه خارج شده و gobjAddress يک آدرس قابل استفاده خواهد بود :

Set gobjAddress = objcollAddresses.Item(indexAddr)x
انجام Event Handling در TAPI :

کد زير شامل يک event handler ساده برای TAPI ، رجيستر کردن واسط event ، تنظيم فيلتر event و رجيستر کردن تمام فراخوانيهای دادن اخطار است . هدف اصلی از اين کد اينست که مطمئن شويم بخشی از TAPI که event ها را دريافت می کند پردازشی را قبل از انتقال به بخشهای ديگر انجام دهد .

تعاريفها :

Dim WithEvents gobjTapiWithEvents As TAPI
Attribute gobjTapiWithEvents.VB_VarHelpID = -1
Dim glRegistrationToken As Long

 

Const TAPI3_CALL_EVENTS =TE_CALLMEDIA Or
TE_CALLNOTIFICATION Or TE_CALLSTATE

تنظيم eventfilter بصورتيکه تمام event های تعريف شده برای TAPI را بپذيرد :

objTapi.EventFilter = TAPI3_CALL_EVENTS
رجيستر کردن event ها :

Set gobjTapiWithEvents = objTapi
Dim fOwner As Boolean, fMonitor As Boolean
Dim lMediaTypes As Long, lCallbackInstance As Long

fOwner = True
fOwner = True
fMonitor = False
lMediaTypes = TAPIMEDIATYPE_AUDIO
lCallbackInstance = 1

glRegistrationToken = gobjTapi.RegisterCallNotifications(gobjAddress,fMonitor,
fOwner,lMediaTypes,lCallbackInstance)x
انتخاب يک ترمينال :

+ قبل از اينکه يک ترمينال را برای برقراری ارتباط انتخاب کنيد بايستی TAPI Initialization و عمل انتخاب آدرس را انجام داده باشيد .

ابتدا يک متغير از نوع ITBasicCallControl ( واسط کنترل تماس ) تعريف می کنيم :

Dim objCallControl As ITBasicCallControl
Set objCallControl = gobjReceivedCallInfo

سپس يک متغير از نوع ITTerminalSupport ( کوئری از شی آدرس ) تعريف می کنيم :

Dim objTerminalSupport As ITTerminalSupport
Set objTerminalSupport = gobjAddress

سپس متغير ترمينال را تعريف کرده و توسط شی objTerminalSupport يک ترمينال را برای آن استخراج می کنيم :

Dim objTerminal As ITTerminal
Set objTerminal = objTerminalSupport.GetDefaultStaticTerminal(lMediaType, dir)x

در اينجا ديگر نيازی به شی objTerminalSupport نيست بنابراين آنرا آزاد می کنيم :

Set objTerminalSupport = Nothing
سپس نياز به تعريف شی objStreamControl برای کنترل ترمينال است :

Dim objStreamControl As ITStreamControl
Set objStreamControl = objCallControl

در صورتيکه اين شی ايجاد شود ، به ازای استريم های موجود در ITCollection امکان ايجاد ترمينال در يک حلقه for بررسی می شود و ترمينال مناسب انتخاب می گردد :

If Not (objStreamControl Is Nothing) Then
Dim objITCollStreams As ITCollection

Set objITCollStreams = objStreamControl.Streams

Dim nIndex As Long, objCrtStream As ITStream

For nIndex = 1 To objITCollStreams.Count
Set objCrtStream = objITCollStreams.Item(nIndex)x
If objCrtStream.MediaType = lMediaType Then
If objCrtStream.Direction = dir Then
Call objCrtStream.SelectTerminal(objTerminal)x
End If
End If
Set objCrtStream = Nothing
Next nIndex

Set objITCollStreams = Nothing
Set objStreamControl = Nothing
End If

ايجاد يک تماس ( Make a Call ) :
+ قبل از اين بخش بايستی مراحل TAPI Initialization و عمل انتخاب آدرس انجام شده باشد .
اين بخش برای ايجاد يک شی تماس ، بررسی و مشخص کردن استريمی که با اين تماس در ارتباط است ، انتخاب و ايجاد ترمينالهای مناسب و کامل کردن ارتباط استفاده می شود .
قبل TAPI Initialization و عمل انتخاب آدرس و انتخاب ترمينال انجام شده باشد .
در ابتدا با استفاده از متد CreateCall يک شی تماس ساخته می شود :

Set gobjCall = gobjOrigAddress.CreateCall(strDestAddress, nSelectedType,lMediaTypes)x
سپس در اينجا بايستی کدی که در بخش اول اين درس برای انتخاب ترمينال نوشته شد آورده شود :

}
Select Terminal Code
{

سپس بايستی دستور Connect اجرا شود :

gobjCall.Connect (False)x
False بدين معناست که ارتباط بصورت آسنکرون برقرار می شود .
دريافت يک تماس :

کد زير برای يافتن و يا ايجاد يک ترمينال مناسب برای دريافت يک تماس بکار می رود . بايستی توجه داشته باشيد که قبل از اجرای کد زير بايستی مراحل مقداردهی اوليه ، انتخاب يک آدرس و رجيسر کردن event ها را انجام دهيد . همچنين در کد زير بايستی مرحله انتخاب ترمينال را نيز انجام دهيد . توجه داشته باشيد که در کد زير متغير pEvent يک اشاره گر برای واسط ITCallNotificationEvent است که توسط TAPI به event Handler داده می شود :

If TapiEvent = TE_CALLNOTIFICATION Then
Dim objCallNotificationEvent As ITCallNotificationEvent
Set objCallNotificationEvent = pEvent
Dim gobjReceivedCallInfo As ITCallInfo
Set gobjReceivedCallInfo = objCallNotificationEvent.Call
Dim objCallControl As ITBasicCallControl
Set objCallControl = gobjReceivedCallInfo
objCallControl.Answer
End If

 

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فروش استوریج HP

فروش استوریج HP

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توافق VCE

توافق VCE

 

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مجازی سازی EMC VPLEX

EMC VPLEX is a virtual computer data storage software product introduced by EMC Corporation in May 2010.[1] VPLEX implements a distributed “virtualization” layer within and across geographically disparate Fibre Channel storage area networks and data centers

History[edit]

A previous virtual storage product from EMC Corporation called Invista was announced in 2005.[5] Five months after the announcement, Invista had not shipped, and was expected to not have much impact until 2007.[6] By 2009, some analysts suggested the Invista product might best be shut down.[7] Another product called the Symmetrix Remote Data Facility (SRDF) also was marketed when VPLEX was announced in May 2010.[8]

Architecture[edit]

Logical layout

VPLEX is deployed as a cluster consisting of one or more engines. Each engine consists of two redundant IOdirectors and one IO annex, each being a single rack unit (1U) physical device. Each engine has 32 Fibre Channel ports (the VS1 model 16 front-end ports and 16 back-end ports) or 16 Fibre Channel ports (the VS2 model has 8 front-end ports and 8 back-end ports) and is protected by two redundant stand-by power supplies.

Each VPLEX director is a bladed multi-core multi-processor x86 virtualization processing unit containing 4 hot-swappable IO modules. The 1U IO annex is used for intra-cluster director communication. Each director runs a Linux kernel and a specialized storage virtualization environment called GeoSynchrony, that provides proprietary clustering capability. Each cluster has a service management station which provides all alerting and software management capabilities.[2]

VPLEX is based on standard EMC building block hardware architecture components such as those used in itsSymmetrix product line. VPLEX uses an in-band architecture which means that data flowing between a host and a storage controller flows through one or more directors. On the front end, VPLEX presents an interface to a host which looks like a standard storage controller SCSI target. On the VPLEX back end, the VPLEX provides an interface to a physical storage controller that act like a host, essentially like a SCSI initiator.

A VPLEX cluster consists of one or more pairs of directors (up to 4 pairs). Any director from any engine can failover to any other director in the cluster in the case of hardware or path failure.

Terminology[edit]

Components of VPLEX include:[2]

  • Director – a single 1U virtualization processor.
V-Plex models
Type-model Cache [GB] FC speed [Gb/s] Engines FC Ports Announced
VPLEX VS1 Single 64 8 1 32 10 May 2010
VPLEX VS1 Dual 128 8 2 64 10 May 2010
VPLEX VS1 Quad 256 8 4 128 10 May 2010
VPLEX VS2 Single 72 8 1 16 23 May 2011
VPLEX VS2 Dual 144 8 2 32 23 May 2011
VPLEX VS2 Quad 288 8 4 64 23 May 2011
  • Cluster – a set of one or more pairs of directors, that are managed as a single entity.
  • Cluster (site management) IP address – a single IP address of a cluster, that provides administrative interfaces (SSH and HTTPS).
  • VPLEX Management Console – a management GUI for VPLEX. Installed on the System Management Server (SMS).
  • Virtual Volume – a unit of storage presented to the host by VPLEX.
  • Extent – an atomic unit of storage; an extent consists of some or all of a storage volume.
  • Device – a logical unit constructed from one or more extents. Devices can be of type Raid-0, Raid-1, or Raid-C and be recursively constructed from other devices.
  • Storage View – a logical container consisting of front end ports, registered host initiator ports, and virtual volumes. Storage Views determine host access to virtual volumes from VPLEX.
  • VPLEX Local – a VPLEX cluster within a single data center.
  • VPLEX Metro – two VPLEX clusters located within or across multiple data centers separated by up to 5ms of rtt latency.
  • VPLEX Geo – two VPLEX clusters located within or across multiple data centers separated by up to 50 ms of rtt latency.

Performance[edit]

A VPLEX Quad VS2 is advertised with up to 3,000,000 I/Os, and up to 23.2 GB/S.[9]

Features[edit]

As of 2010 with release 4.0.0.00.11, the base major features of VPLEX were:[3]

Virtual Storage
Servers access VPLEX as if it were a storage array. The SCSI LUNs they see represent virtual disks (virtual volumes) which are allocated in VPLEX from a pool of storage volumes provided by one or more back-end storage arrays. A storage volume is simply a storage LUN provided by one of the storage arrays that VPLEX is connected to.
Data migration
VPLEX can move data between different devices or between different extents, while maintaining I/O access to the data.
Importing existing LUNs via a feature called Application Consistent mode.
Application consistent mode virtual volumes are one-to-one representations of existing storage volumes; such volumes can be easily imported by a host after removing VPLEX from the data path. The ability to easily move from virtualized to non-virtualized disk storage is the main advantage to this approach. This approach limits the usable extent size to that of the underlying storage volume and imposes upper level limits on device layout and construction.
Host LUN Mapping
The set of presented virtual volumes can be configured independently for each server.
Write-Through cache (Local and Metro)
Writes from hosts are cached by VPLEX, but only acknowledged back to the host once they have been acknowledged by the back-end storage array. In the initial VS1 release, VPLEX caching is very beneficial in read-skewed environments. Cache size is 32 GB per director.
Write-Back cache (Geo only)
Writes from hosts are cached by VPLEX, protected, and then acknowledged back to the host. For the VS1 hardware, cache size is 32 GB per director.
Power and Space efficient[10]
Virtual Volume Mirroring
Provides the ability to make two copies of a LUN within and across heterogeneous storage arrays.
Distributed Devices
Presentation of a logical device to hosts across geographically disparate (<100km | <5ms latency) clusters with full Read/Write host access provided by each VPLEX Cluster.
Application layer manages (prevents) concurrent updates from multiple hosts.
AccessAnywhere ensures all hosts read the most recent updates, independent of source.

Base licensing includes up to 10 TB of attached back-end storage and then priced per TB per price tier beyond the base. There are some optional features (i.e. Metro), separately licensed.